Permian Volcanism and Its Relation to The Tectonic Development of Sumatra

John A Katili


The Permian volcanic deposits col'ering an extensive area southeast of Lake Singkarak, Central Sumalra, have been mapped in detail and studied in relation to the structural development of the pre-Tertiary Sumatra orogene. During the Permian time, Central Sumatra was occupied by aa elongated sea basin in which thick sequences of bathyal and neritic sediments were deposited. Pelitic sediments dominated, but at the same time volcanic activity started in this area. The volcanic products comprise mainly ftows of hornblende and augite andesites whit their tuffs. In some parts of southern sumatra the volcanic activity lasted till cretaceous ume. The main phase of foiding took place about 120 m'y. ago accompanied by an emplacement of granitic rocks. After an uplift in younger Cretaceous time, the area was strongly attacked by erosion. The regional geologic history of Sumatra revealed clearly a divergent behaviour from the classical concept of magmatic evolution in an orogenic belt as demonstrated by the dominantly andesitic charebter of the geosynlinal volcanism Other examples of volcanism associated with geosynclinal subsidence, possessing an andesitic rather than a basaltic character. could also be observed in the Tertiary Sunda mountain system of Sumatra. The Indonesian examples and similar occurrences of andesitic volcanism during a geo-sysnclinal subsidence in other parts of the world, show that much work still will have to be done in order to gain a better understanding regarding the relationship between volcanism and orogenesis.  

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