Discerning geomorphological aspects of tsunami risk in Pangandaran, West Java, Indonesia

Agus Men Riyanto, Dicky Muslim, Eko Yulianto, Alfathony Krisnabudhi, Fuad Firmansyah


The geomorphological understanding of earth dynamics, including the relationship between landforms and their processes, was one of the earliest and most specific contributions to disaster prevention. Disaster geomorphology is one of the approaches in disaster studies, which includes aspects of landforms, processes, and results of physical processes that have the potential and can cause disasters. The landform is of risk factors that can turn natural hazards into natural disasters and determines the damage that disasters can cause to human activities. Following the 2006 South Java Tsunami, infrastructural development occurred massively in the 2006 South Java Tsunami inundation areas. Several tsunami risk mitigation efforts were conducted but solely based on the 2006 tsunami scenario and ignored the existence of more considerable tsunami hazards from the Sunda Megathrust. This consideration may lead to an increasing risk of future tsunamis. We evaluate and appraise favorable and unfavorable geomorphological features to reduce the risk of future tsunamis. Pangandaran has a unique landform compared to other areas on the south coast of Java, and this landform has the potential to reduce future tsunami risk. Typical landforms studied include coastal plains, alluvial plains, Tombolo, tied islands, and structural hills. The results show that the morphological features of the Tombolo and the coastal plain area are categorized as high risk when a tsunami occurs. The tied island is categorized as a favorable morphology where these morphological units have the advantage of elevation and efficient distance to the tsunami risk zone. Evacuation facilities are also needed, especially in the coastal plain and Tombolo areas (with a height of >20 meters), to reduce disaster risk, particularly mortality caused by tsunami events.


Pangandaran, geomorphological aspects, tsunami, disaster risk reduction

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